柳传志:商业沉浮,机会永存

2015-08-08  柳传志
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《商业沉浮,机会永存》是联想集团董事局主席柳传志2011年9月在阿里巴巴网商大会上发表的一次精彩深刻演讲。

柳传志:

各位好,我听马云先生介绍,说今天在座的绝大多数都是在网上开店的中小企业主和创业者,就是说大家现在还依然处于一个艰苦创业的阶段,很不容易。

我想在网上开店的朋友大概分成两类,这是我们的“饭碗”,这是我们的生计,我们努力把这个生计做到最好,但是做到多大就是多大,这是一种。还有一种就是立志要做大事,钻天打洞也希望将来能把企业做大,做一个大的企业家,这也是一部分。

我自己是在1984年的时候开始创业的,那时候我40岁,现在很多朋友都说你都是一个老头了怎么还能开始创业呢,其实当时我创业的时候真的是心潮澎湃,我觉得那个热情绝不亚于现在20几岁的年轻人,那是为什么呢,是因为机会太难得了。

我是22岁的时候大学毕业,那时候正是1966年轰轰烈烈的文化大革命开始,文化大革命就是阶级斗争,一斗争就斗争了十年,结束的时候我已经32岁了,在这个十年当中基本上就没干过什么好好的研究工作的活。

我最深的印象就是两件事,一个就是阶级斗争之残酷,我只举一个例子,就是在我从农场劳动被调回北京的时候,在火车站看见枪毙人的布告,那时候到处都是枪毙人的布告,在一张布告里有若干人,我记得有四五个人,其中有一个非常熟悉的名字叫王守亮,中学教了我三年语文,当了两年半主任的老师。

我看了以后一下就蒙住了,枪毙王守亮的原因是说他是苏联特务,后来时隔多年平反之后,才知道王守亮夫妇没有子女,他的太太在苏联大使馆工作,他太太被抓后枪毙了,他后面有怨言,于是把他一并枪毙了。

除了这个残酷之外,更让我每天都被折磨的就是穷,我们作为一个中国科学院计算技术所的研究人员,分到那个所以后经过两年的努力分给我一间12平方米的“自行车棚”。

什么叫自行车棚呢,就是那个房子盖了一排,房子的墙都是单砖的,房顶就是一层石棉瓦,在北京这样单砖的房子,一层石棉瓦的房子,住下去之后那个感觉在座的是没法体会的,冬天晚上生着炉子,早上起来房间里的温度是6度,晚上在6度的房子里住大家可以想像,夏天的时候如果外面是38度的话,屋子里面就是37.5度。

住多少人呢,12平方米的房子最多的时候住六个人,我和太太,两个孩子加上岳父岳母,大家说这12平米的房子六个人怎么住呢?我所有的东西都是折叠的,所以在那个时候我没能研究我的计算机,倒是学了怎么做木匠,床都是折叠的,白天的时候一拉一合全部变成了沙发型的椅子,吃饭的饭桌全都是折叠的,没吃饭时全叠起来,到了晚上吃饭的时候再拉回来。

我印象很深的一件事情,是在房间里的蜂窝煤炉上做饭,墙上挂着铁丝晾衣服,做菜的时候一不小心碰到铁丝,袜子就会掉到汤里了。

当时我给孩子买冬天穿的棉毛裤,一定要节省两个月才能节省出来,家里的经济大权在我手里,家里的夫妻经常为经济权发生矛盾,如果老婆掌握的话这个月过不去,一个月只能买一块钱的肉末,她经常为了孩子的需要超支,超支的结果就是有同学、朋友来了以后,你就完全没有能力请人家吃一顿饭,哪怕最简单的饭,这在面子上实在是过不去。这就是那个时代过的日子。

到了1976年,打倒四人帮,真的是全国人民欢欣鼓舞,但是还要经过两年的过渡时间,邓小平先生才能坐到领导位置上,这个时候就是1978年,那个时候我已经34岁了,邓小平先生第一大功劳就是把阶级斗争第一方针改为以经济建设为中心,这时候我们科技人员的日子开始好过了。

当时开了一个大会叫“科学大会”,说科学的“春天”到了,于是我们开始提工资了,当然住房暂时不能改善,而且允许我们搞一点翻译,搞一点别的工作,那时候我记得跟我太太的矛盾主要就是晚上争时间,都想在实验室里多做一会,学习外文,多研读国外的资料等等。

但是做着做着我心中又不甘心了,我想这可能是我独有的心里郁闷,其他的同事可能没有这样。就是我在科学院技术研究所做工作,我们那个研究所做的是技术成果,所以我每每做出成果来,就是评了奖,提了职称,但是这台机器就放在一边,接着做第二台,从来没有想过把科研成果产业化的问题,这样连续过两三年以后,我就真的觉得我们到底又给社会做了什么呢,自己确实提了又提,但是实际上对整个社会没有起到技术人员所应起的作用。

就在这个时候,就是在1983年前后,科学院的领导周光召院长到美国、到欧洲去做访问,当时他们先是做了一段时间的访问学者后回到中国来,知道在国外都是大企业里进行研究开发,然后才有可能把研究开发的成果变成产业化,利用企业的力量推到市场上去,这是一个机制问题,因此他们回国以后就号召科技人员把自己的科研成果带到市场上去,当时绝大多数的人是不敢去,但是我就特别的愿意去,因为我觉得活到40岁总算是机会来了,所以就特别的愿意去。

但实际上后来办企业真的是千难万险,今天宋司长在这儿,他们都非常亲切,为什么呢?他们都特别明白,那个时候在计划经济体制下,我们科学院所办的企业不是计划内的企业。

什么是计划内的企业呢?当时我们国家有若干个工业部门,比如管计算机和电子领域的叫电子工业部,管农业机械生产叫农业部,还有什么航天工业部等等等等,这些部和今天的功能不一样,每个部下都有企业,他们直接管着这些企业,就是管这个企业生产多少东西,你们的原件从哪儿来,东西从哪儿进,卖多少钱,全部由部里统一管,这就是计划经济。

而科学院办企业,周院长的想法并没有得到当时一个完整系统的考虑,把你们也归到计划内,那只是计划外的一种考虑。

计划内和计划外有什么不同,计划外的企业就拿不到办企业必须的某些指标,比如说生产,生产要有生产批文,进口要有进口批文,因为我们是做计算机的,必然像CPU,像操作系统,一些重要的元器件和设备是需要进口的,但是没有批文进口的话就会非常的麻烦。

外汇是有指标的,比方在计划内的企业给你100万美元的指标,那是什么意思呢?就是你只要花两块六毛钱,你就能买到一美元,我说的是1984年,花260万人民币就能买到100万美元的指标,但是在当时已经有灰色市场了,像我们没有这个指标,我们就可以到灰色市场想办法去买,那大概要六块多钱人民币买一美元,关键的问题还不是六块多钱,因为叫灰色市场的意思是说理论上讲这是犯法的,但是没有人去管你,因为大家都在摸着石头过河,所以并没管,但是你要惹了谁那可就要犯法了。

那样的日子其实很难过的,对一个想做好人,好好做企业的人是很难做的,尤其是像我们所有权还是国家的,并不是我通过这些行为做完之后,我自己就变成富翁了,不是这样的,这种情况下还要冒某些政策风险。

我举个例子,1987年的时候我们开始学着从国外往国内倒腾计算机,所谓“倒腾”的意思就是说不是非常合法的渠道,但是卖的非常之好,因此我的销售部门经理就大大超额完成了指标,根据预定的考量,他们在年底这个部门的人和这个经理本身都要得到巨额奖金,多少钱呢?这个经理要得到6400多块钱人民币的奖金,部门里的其他人也都有4千、3千不等的奖金,6400多块钱是个什么含义呢?我当时的月工资大概在100块钱左右,那就是说相当于60几倍的月工资,大家想想,你们现在的工资要加60几倍是个什么感觉,而且那个时候还特别的缺钱花,所以这已经就不得了。

但是发这个钱的时候遇到巨大的问题,我们在一起开会才知道,原来在当时交的不是现在的所得税,因为在计划经济的年代定了一种税法叫奖金税,就是当你的奖金超过了三个月工资的时候,剩的那部分要交300%的奖金税,因此这一算就不得了了,如果把几千块钱奖金罚了,再把奖金税交了,明年就没法干活了。

所以我们几个领导就在这里研究,研究出三条路,第一条路就是发了奖金再交税,明年就不知怎么弄了,我们就很难考虑下一步怎么走了。第二条路就是以前经常的做法,跟大家说毛主席教导我们说情况是在不断变化,没想到你们做的这么好,以后一并发,陆续发,今年暂时不发了,那就是食言而肥。第三种做法就是不好的做法,中关村街上的民营企业都是这么做的,一般都是拿支票换了现金,根本不入帐,把钱发完了谁都不知道就算完了,很不幸的研究了半天我们选择了第三种做法。

选择第三种做法之后真的没想到第二年我们换钱的单位东窗事发,换钱的是广东的一个实验工厂,他们因为别的事被查出来了,连带把我们的事也查出来了,给了我警告处分还罚了九万块钱,因为每隔一年营业额都有很大的增长,没有两年也改成了现在的所得税,说明那个税法本身也不合理,心中也有不舒服的地方,我这是为了谁,我自己也没有多拿钱,实际上所有权是在国家那儿,还必须是科学院的,但是你要承担这个责任等等。

我只是想说明这样碰撞的事太多了,在当时办个企业是多么的困难,和今天大家的情况还是有很大的不同。但是在那种情况下我们不断注意着,不能完全在道路的中间走,要踩在红线的边缘上走,不然的话那个路一定是走不通的,但是踩过了红线就会出很大的危险,因此怎么样有理想而不理想化的前进确实是非常困难的事情,但是在当时我们还是非常努力的注意学习企业管理的规律,研究我们行业的规律。

在1990年前后,那个时候我们国家为了保护电脑这个行业,对国外大的电脑公司进口的机器通过进口批文和高关税的方法把他们挡在外面,希望保护我们国家民族品牌的产业,当时民族品牌的老大哥就是国家投巨资成立的一间公司叫长城,但是保护的结果是我们的产品又贵质量又不好,而且国外的电脑不能进来就严重的影响了各行各业的信息化过程,像银行、海关,大量需要用电脑的单位都没法用电脑,我记得当时90年的时候全国电脑的销售量才20万台。

当时跟今天不同,今天大家用电脑实际是在做一个消费类的用途,当时的电脑其实主要是生产资料,是生产工具。国家明白了这个道理以后,国家在91、92年就把关税大幅度的降低了,降到由过去的100%多降到10%几,然后又把批文取消了,这时候国外的电脑像IBM、AST、戴尔等就大举进入了中国,进来之后果然带动了各行各业的发展,但是电脑的厂家突如其来受到这么大的冲击,一下子兵败如山倒,我记得93年一年长城这个品牌就在中国消失了,那是我们国家一个中流砥柱的企业,和IBM合并了成为IBM的一个生产部门。

联想在当时只占中国市场的2%左右,而且我们在苦苦的研究,在资金、技术、管理、人才,各方面都远远没法跟人竞争的情况下,这个仗怎么打,是不是退回去继续做代理算了,好在我们当时研究的结果,这个思路还是正确的,没有去研究竞争对手多么强悍,更多的研究了我们本身不要跟人家比,我们自己本身有哪些不足,存在着问题已经是一大堆了,于是我们就好好的把自己内部做了调整,组织架构、业务模式都做了调整,当时的杨元庆是29岁,把他选来做事业部的总经理,然后到电子工业部向部长胡启立同志下了战表,表示我们下决心要把民族工业大旗扛到底,

回想这都是十几年前的事情。后来联想果然一路由2%的市场份额一直达到了30%几,这里面的过程我就不具体说了。

总体来讲,联想这么多年由一个很小的企业变成今天有一定规模的企业,而且还能蓬勃向上,这里面有诸多原因,在这儿我就不多说了,我最想跟大家交流的,有一条原因一定是最重要的,就是在我和我同事的心里面是有目标、有追求、有愿景,不管遇到什么样的困难都绝不动摇、绝不放弃。

我讲上面这段话主要是讲给那些励志要做大企业,永远有追求的朋友们讲,因为我相信在你们未来的路上一定会遇到各种各样的困难,真的要想做到底的话,你们要想好你们能不能经受住这种风险。

此外,我下面再讲一段话是给所有创业的朋友和中小企业的朋友听的,朋友们都是在网上做生意,有的很多都在做同一种生意,卖的是同样的东西,因此谁能做的好,越做越大,路越走越宽,而有的人呢就会路越走越窄,这个就不管是宏图大志的朋友或者是只求生计的朋友都不得不考虑的事情。

记得在中关村80年代的时候,就是我办公司的时候大概有20几家公司,后来发展到了几百家,几千家做流通领域的公司,当时叫倒买倒卖,后来有一段时间说中关村叫“倒爷”一条街,就是倒买倒卖,实际就是流通领域。这些公司我估计到今天大部分全垮,而今天又有了成千上万家十倍以上做流通领域的公司,但大多都不是原来的那些公司了,但是其中也有一部分人杀出来了,有一部分人是倒了,像联想就是其中的一个,后来就成了产品制造商,还分出了一个神州数码,成了全国IT中最大的高新技术产品代理商,神州数码营业额也能做到四五百亿。

这里面又有很多因素,回想起来我当时做法上跟别人有一点不同,想跟大家探讨看看是不是对大家有所启发。这点不同就是关于想事,想问题。

当时我们在计算所的一个成果把它变成了产品,叫联想式汉卡,那个时候电脑卖的PC机全部是英文没有中文,我们开发了一种汉字系统,是一个硬件卡加上软件,当时做这个卡的大概在全国有将近上百家,其中大的竞争对手有北大方正、巨人史玉柱,史玉柱今天在卖电脑游戏,以前还卖过药,脑白金,还做过房地产,但最早史玉柱是做软件出身的,而且巨人汉卡卖的挺厉害,如果我当时完全陷入在汉卡里面,只研究怎么样买到便宜的元器件,如何提高汉卡的性能,怎么样去做汉卡的市场,那就发展不到今天了。

因为我一方面和我的同事们把这件事组织人认真的研究推进,同时我要退出来想事,所谓“想事”的意思用我们的话叫“退出画面看画”,就是画了一张油画,你站在油画面前太近的时候,你有时候看不出来油画黑的地方是什么意思,然而站远之后你发现黑的地方是为了衬托别的地方的白,让别的地方更白更亮,所以退出来想事可能会对你业务下一步的发展有好处。

比方说我们当时先想到如果把汉卡插在电脑里主销电脑,那可能效益要好的多,于是我就去找电脑的代理商,然后研究怎么样给他们做代理、去主销,在做代理的时候又开始研究,我们怎么能让我们自己设计生产电脑,就是走所谓贸工技的路,先做贸易,把这个市场弄熟了,然后我们自己再开工厂,最后再提高技术含量。

所以退出来想事我觉得可能是很重要的,要不然大家就会天天陷在里面,永远的年复一年、日复一日的做这个事,如果我一直这么做的话,充其量在当时我顶多是一个做IBM的代理商,做到后来什么也做不成。

在这儿我讲几句想事要怎么想,我想讲四点。

第一点,系统性的考虑问题。

什么叫系统性的考虑问题呢?我上面说的都是自己的切身体会,这里不再举我们的例子,想举大家的例子。

比如开店的,我不是指网上开店,只是要开个做服装的店,要开个新店,必然先要考虑筹资的问题,然后找地方,找人,找领头的人培训员工,然后找货源,解决物流,然后市场营销等等。在这些里面可能筹钱是首先要突破的,其他的几件事就不能忙着先做一样,而需要同步来考虑,同步考虑的意思就是这个做一点,那个做一点,基本上都差不太多了,要齐头并进的做。

我过去做木匠的时候,做一个桌子,当时的桌面跟桌腿是拿螺丝拧的,在拧螺丝的时候,比如说一个桌子要拧四个螺丝,你要是先把一个螺丝拧紧了,拧实了,那三个螺丝眼就对不上,跟这个意思是一样的。

某件事,你如果只把找地方谈好了,单兵突进,别的事根本没有谈成,结果你整件事就会付出很大的代价,然后把整个计划拖延了,所以必须系统性的考虑问题,一共有几个环节,哪个环节一定是要先做的,哪些环节都要试着往前做的,这个是系统考虑问题的一个方法。因为我遇到一些朋友吃过这种亏,把某一件事谈的特瓷实,结果别的事没做成,要给合作方付罚款,这个就称之为系统性的考虑问题。

第二点,大家做企业要定一个中期目标。

比如说长跑,你不能像跑跑短一样跑长跑。中期目标定了以后,对我们这些企业来说两三年的目标就是中期目标,企业越大当然中期目标的时间越长,其实这里面要分阶段的,第一步先做什么,为这个目标分阶段来逐渐奠定一个基础,奠定一个基础来做。

比如我刚才举的那个例子,我们后来卖电脑,在卖电脑之前先学会做代理,了解行情,了解客户是什么样的,怎么样为他们服务。

今天大家听着都觉得是常识,而在我们那个年代不是这样的,当时中国国家官办的企业都是分配,没有什么市场买卖一说,也不必去了解客户的需求,所以这些东西我们都是要自己进行学习的,所以我现在要去学习做“贸”,然后才能够办工厂,然后才能国际化。这些事大家可以看联想的档案,这些不是我现在倒过来说的,实际做的时候就是这么把大概的阶段分清楚了,实际很多事情要一个阶段一个阶段去做才能够完成。

我记得有一次北京举行马拉松比赛,一个日本选手获得了第一名,他讲他得第一名的小窍门,是他比赛前一天开着车把跑道跑了一圈,在每一个十公里做了标记,因此在他跑第一个十公里,第二个十公里,目标没有那么遥遥无期,前一个十公里怎么为下一个十公里奠定基础。

如果一个人没有42公里的目标,做到哪儿算哪儿真的就不能有一个长远的发展,但是一下定了一个目标一把冲过去,实际是办不到的,因此实际上要先到一个5米高的地方,要一个台阶一个台阶垫上去,这个我也有很多具体例子,都是我们在工作实践中得到的体会,我们称为分阶段考虑问题。

第三点,谋定而后动。

谋定而后动就是在做一些重要决定之前要把事情尽量的想周到,想清楚,然后再下决心。

我说一个最近的例子,一年多以前由于金融危机的问题,联想集团的业务剧烈下降,亏损的很厉害,后来我又出来担任董事局主席,我和杨元庆在一起,他担任CEO,这时候我和媒体说过一句大话,说三年之后一定扭亏为盈,后来一个月之后就说一年之后扭亏为盈,后来确实做的很好,为什么敢说这句话,就是预先把这些事情,要考虑的问题都细细的研究了一遍。在并购IBM PC的时候也细细的研究过,这样的例子很多。

谋定而后动,打个比方,像过去70年代的时候在北京火车站,你要去接人,火车老晚点,你要打电话去问火车是不是晚点,但是北京火车站一共大概就那么几部电话机,所以电话是永远打不进去的,永远是忙音。后来我就研究了一个方法,试验果然成功,就是不停的拨,拨一个钟头,忙音一直有,但是终于有一个空插进去,就是当你想通以后行动要坚决,最后能做成。

那什么情况下死活拨不通,就是电话号码不对,电话号码不对是什么意思?就是没有谋定,提前没有把事想的很明白。我是军事院校毕业的,在上军事课的时候老师讲过一个林彪的作战原则,“四快一慢”,“四快”的意思大概就是切割要快,包抄要快等等,但是“一慢”我记得很清楚,就是发动总攻的时间要慢,就是发动总攻前要把所有的事情仔仔细细想一遍,然后下定决心往前攻。

这儿和大家谈的事有一定困难,因为大家在创业的过程之中,怎么去想事,怎么把事想清楚了,是不是这么想就绝对行了,就敢不顾一切了,现在都还不敢说,这是要对有一定经验的人才能这么说话,为了这一点,下面还有一点。

第四点,复盘。

复盘是围棋的术语,打桥牌都会把原来情况怎么样重新演练一遍,做企业要想提高谋定而后动“谋”的能力,复盘很重要,这个事做成了好好想想,这里面有哪些是偶然的基因、偶然的原因,不然的话都以为是自己的本事,下次照样再做就有可能做不成,所以通过复盘总结经验教训,尤其是失败的事情要认真的总结。

因为是自己在复盘,不要给自己留任何情面的把这个事想清楚,如果你和你的同事关系非常融洽,能够血淋淋的解剖自己的不足,把这个事反反复复的复盘就是能力的提高,到后来的时候就会有能力把事情想明白,然后就可以谋定而后动了。

我想大家在现在这个阶段可能是艰苦,但是只要有坚定不移的目标,有很强的学习能力,最后一定能获得成功,谢谢大家!

Liu Chuanzhi's speech" commercial ups and downs, opportunity."

Abstract:" business chance" ups and downs, one is to associate group board chairman Liu Chuanzhi in Alibaba network conference published a wonderful profound speech. In his speech, Liu Chuanzhi also to the presence of the founders imparted many commercial" secret". The following is the text of his speech:

Liu Chuanzhi:

Everybody is good, I listen to Mr. Ma Yun, said today the vast majority are in the online shop of the small business owners and entrepreneurs, that is to say we are still in the midst of a carve stage, is not easy.

I want to run a shop on the net friend is generally divided into two categories, this is our" rice bowl", this is our life, we try to make the best of life, but how big is much, this is a kind of. Another is to do great things, seize every opportunity to secure personal gains also hope I can make a big enterprise, make a big entrepreneurs, which is also a part.

I was in 1984 to start a business, I was 40 years old, now a lot of friends say that you are a man do you start a business, in fact I do poineering work when it is be full of excitement. I think that passion, not less than 20 years old now, young man, why is it that, because it was a rare opportunity.

I was 22 years old when he graduated from university in 1966 with vigour and vitality, that was the beginning of the cultural revolution, the cultural revolution is a class struggle, a struggle ten years of fighting, the end of the time I was 32 years old, in this ten years basically not doing good research work.

My deepest impression is two things, one is the class struggle in the cruel, I only give you one example, is I from farm labor was recalled to Beijing, in the train station to see shoot people notice, that moment is everywhere to shoot people notice, in a notice there are a number of people, I remember there are four or five people, which has a very familiar with the name Wang Shouliang, high school taught me Chinese for three years, when the two and a half years director teacher.

After I read it over, shot Wang Shouliang because he is a Soviet spy, and later years later vindicated, knew Wang Shouliang couples with no children, his wife at the Soviet embassy, his wife was arrested after the shot, he later complained, so he also shot.

In addition to this cruel, more let every day I was tortured is poor, we as a China Institute of computing technology, the researchers divided the so, after two years of efforts to give me a 12 square metre" bicycle shed".

What is called a bicycle shed, is that the house was built in a row, the wall of the house is a brick, the roof is a layer of asbestos, in Beijing such a single brick house, a layer of asbestos house to live, after the feeling here is not the experience, with the winter night, the morning room temperature is 6 degree, 6 degrees at night in the house you can imagine, the summer if it is 38 degree, the house is 37.5 degrees.

How many people live in, 12 square metres of the house most of the time to hold six people, me and wife, two children and father-in-law, everybody said that 12 square meters house six people how to live? Whatever I have is folded, so at that time I didn't study for my computer, but learned how to do carpentry, bed is folded, the day is pulled together all become sofa chair, table are all folded, didn't have a meal full stack up, to the evening meal when back to.

I'm impressed thing is in the room, the honeycomb briquet stove for cooking, wall hanging wire clothes, cook when accidentally hit the wire, socks will fall into the soup.

I had to buy them for winter wear cotton trousers, must save two months to save up, the family's economic power in my hand, home couples often as economic rights conflict, if the wife master the words this month to go, only one month to buy a piece of money minced meat, she the needs of the children often overspend, overrun is the result of classmates, friends came, you totally have no ability to please people to eat a meal, even the most simple meal, which in the face is to pass. This is the time of day.

By 1976, down with the gang of four, it is a national dance for joy, but after two years of transition time, Mr. Deng Xiaoping to sit to leadership positions, this time was 1978, when I was 34 years old, Deng Xiaoping 's first major contribution is the first principle of class struggle to take economic construction as the center, this time our scientific and technological personnel day.

At that time, had a conference called" science", said the" spring" to science, so we started to rise in pay, but temporary housing does not improve, but also allows us to do a little translation, engage in some other jobs, I remember to tell my wife contradiction mainly is the evening for the time, both want to do more for a while in the lab, learning a foreign language, many study abroad information etc..

But doing doing my heart not reconciled, I think it may be my own heart depressed, other colleagues may not have such. I was in Academy of Sciences Institute of technology do the work, we do the research institute is the technology, so I often make achievements, is on a prize, the title, but this machine is placed on the side, then do second, never thought of the industrialization of research results, so that continuous two or three years later, I really think we how to do what they do, again, but to society as a whole has not played by the technical staff should play a role in.

At this time, just before and after 1983, Academy of Sciences of the leadership of dean Zhou Guangzhao to the United States, to Europe to visit, when they first do some time visiting scholars after coming back to China, know abroad are large enterprises in research and development, and then it may make research and development results into industrialization, use of the force is pushed to the market, this is a problem, so they returned home called science and technology personnel to their own scientific research to the market, the vast majority of people are afraid to go, but I especially want to, because I think it is a chance to live to be 40 years old, so special to.

But in fact the enterprises run later really are numerous difficulties and dangers, director of today song here, they are very kind, why? They all know, at that time under the planned economic system, our academy run by the enterprise is not a program within the enterprise.

What is the plan of enterprise? At that time, our country has a number of industries, such as computers and electronic field called the Ministry of electronic industry, pipe agricultural machinery production called the Ministry of agriculture, what the Ministry of aerospace industry and so on, the Ministry and today's function is different, each men have enterprise, they directly with these enterprises, is the enterprise production many things your original, come from where, from where into things, sell number money, all by the department unites a canal, it is planned economy.

While the academy does business, Zhou idea not obtained then a complete system to consider, you also go to plan, it is plan a consideration.

Planned and unplanned what is different, plan and foreign enterprises to get the enterprise must in some indicators, such as production, production to production approval, import to import approval, because we are doing computer, must like CPU, like operating system, some important components and equipment is needed to import, but without the approval of imports of words will be very troublesome.

Foreign exchange is a target, for example in the program within the enterprise to give you $1000000 index, what does that mean? If you spend two dollars and six cents, you can buy a dollar, I say is 1984, spent 2600000 yuan to buy a $1000000 target, but at that time have a grey market, as we do not have this index, we can go to the gray market and try to buy, the about six many money RMB to buy a dollar, the key problem is not more than six yuan of money, because the name grey market mean theory this is illegal, but no one goes to you, because everyone is feeling stone to cross a river, and so no pipe, but you want to provoke the who that will break the law.

That day is very sad, for one to do a good job, do good business is hard to do, especially as our ownership or state, and I'm not through these behavior after finishing, I become a millionaire, is not the case, this case will take some policy risk.

Me to cite an example, in 1987 we began to learn from foreign to domestic vend computer, so-called "flippers" meaning that is to say not very legitimate channels, but sell very well, so my sales manager is overfulfiled index, according to the predetermined considerations, they in the end of this department and the manager itself will receive a prize, how many money? The manager will be more than 6400 yuan RMB bonus, the department other people also have 4000, 3000 prize, 6400 dollars is what meaning? My monthly salary is about 100 yuan, that is to say the equivalent of 60 times the monthly salary, we think, now your salary plus 60 times is what feeling, and that time is also very short of money, so it has to be.

But this money when faced with huge problems, we meet together to just know, originally at the time of delivery is not now the income tax, because in the time of planned economy made a law called the bonus tax, is when your winnings exceeded three months salary when the part, left to pay 300% of the bonus tax, so this too had not been, if the thousand dollar bonus penalty, the bonus tax paid, next year will not work.

So we several leadership study here, on three road, the first road is the bonus tax again, I do not know how to get the next year, will be very difficult for us to consider what to do next. The second way is used to practice, to say that Chairman Mao taught us that the situation is constantly changing, you did not expect to do so well, after a complicated, have made this year, temporarily not fat, that is the stories. The third approach is not good practice, on the streets of Zhongguancun private enterprises are doing so, are generally take checks for cash, do not enter, put the money out who do not know even if finished, unfortunately research for a long time we selected third kinds of practices.

Choose the third approach when it really didn't expect second years we change one's criminal conspiracy was unmasked. Money unit, is an experimental factory in Guangdong, they because nothing has been found, and our things also check out, gave me a warning was also fined ninety thousand yuan, because every other year turnover has very big growth, no two years also changed the income tax, the tax law itself is not a reasonable explanation, have bad place, I this is to who, I do not have much money, in fact there is in the state ownership, must also be a science, but you have to bear this liability and so on.

I just want to show such a collision has too many things, at the time a company is how difficult, and today 's situation is very different. But in that case we continue to pay attention to, not in the middle of the road go to step on the red line, walk on the edge, so the road must be dead, but stepped on the red line will be a great risk, therefore how to have an ideal rather than idealized forward really is a very difficult thing, but at the time we were very hard to learn business management pattern, study our industry law.

In 1990, at that time our country in order to protect the computer in this industry, on the large foreign computer company imported machine through import approval and the method of high tariffs put them out, want to protect our national brand industry, the national brand of big brother is a country to invest to set up a company called the the Great Wall, but the protection is the result of our products and your quality is not good, but also foreign computer cannot come in serious impact on all walks of life information process, like banks, customs, need a large number of computer units are not able to use the computer, I remember 90 years when the national computer sales to 200000 units.

At that time, and today, today we use the computer is actually doing a consumer uses, when the computer is mainly the production of information, is the production of tools. Countries understand this principle, a country in 91, 92 years will bring tariffs substantially reduced, down to the last 100% fell to 10%, and then to permit cancelled, this time foreign computers like the IBM, AST, Dell and other large-scale entered China, came in and drove in all walks of life development of computer manufacturers come unexpectedly, but was so big impact, all of a sudden a rout is like a landslide., I remember 93 years the Great Wall this brand in China disappeared, it is our country a mainstay business, and IBM merged to become IBM a production department.

Associate in the Chinese market accounted for only about 2%, and we are hard to study, in capital, technology, management, personnel, all fails to competition, this battle how to hit, is it right? Go back to the agent to do well, but we were the results of the study, the idea is correct, not to study how tough competitors, more research on the US itself not compared with the family, we ourselves have what inadequacy, existing problem is already a lot, so we will have to put their made an internal adjustment, organizational structure, business model have made the adjustment, then Yang Yuanqing is 29 years old, chose him to be division general manager, and then to the Ministry of electronic industry to minister Comrade Hu Qili under the table in battle, we decided to put the national industry banner of hell,

Remember this is ten years ago. Later associative as route 2% market share has reached 30%, inside this process I would not specifically say.

In general, Association for so many years from a small business into a certain scale of the enterprise, but also the vigorous, there are many reasons, here I will not say more, I want to share with you, there is a reason must be the most important, is in I and my colleague's heart is to have a great aim, the pursuit, has a vision, no matter what kind of difficulties encountered are never wavered, never give up.

I say it is to those who wanted to expand the business, there are always friends, because I believe in your future road will encounter various difficulties, really want to do it, you want to you can not be able to withstand this risk.

In addition, I say a word was given to all business friends and the small and medium-sized enterprise friends, friends are doing business on the Internet, some are doing the same business, selling is the same thing, so who can do good, do bigger more, further down the road wide, and some people will be narrower, the matter is great plan and noble ambition or friends

本文关键词:柳传志 商业沉浮
上一篇由“兔子吃狼”故事“评管理” 下一篇经销商的资源整合可以整些啥?【..

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